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Faculty Directory » Maqsood A. Mughal

Industrial Technology

Office Hours:

Semester: Spring 2017
Tuesday and Thursday 9:30 - 10:45 a.m.

Office Information:

Room Number: Conlon 211
Phone: 978-665-3585

Courses Taught:

ITEC 1100  Electronics I
ITEC 3100  Electronics III
ITEC 3110  Digital Electronics
ITEC 4100  Industrial Electronics


Ph.D. Environmental Sciences, Arkansas State University
(Focus: Thin Film Semiconductor Materials)
M.S. Environmental Sciences, Arkansas State University
M.S. Engineering Management, Arkansas State University
B.S. Electronics Engineering, Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology

Research Interests:

  • 3D Printed Electronics
  • Synthesis of Nano-Structured (2D) Materials (Chalcogenides, Sulfides, Metal Oxides) as Thin Films
  • Computational Material Science: Optimization and Failure Analysis/Mechanics

Representative Publications:

  • M. A. Mughal, R. Sharma, “Progress in indium (III) sulfide (In2S3) buffer layer deposition techniques  for CIS, CIGS, and CdTe-based thin film solar cells”, Solar Energy, 120, 2015, 131-146.

This paper reviews the recent progress with indium (III) sulfide (In2S3)-buffered thin film solar cells (TFSC). In2S3 has emerged as a promising low-hazard buffer (or window) material, and has proven to improve the properties of the solar cells, while reducing toxicity. Various deposition techniques have been employed to synthesize In2S3 films on different types of substrates. Until now, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and ionic layer gas atomic reaction (ILGAR) techniques have been the two most successful, yielding maximum energy conversion efficiencies up to 16.4% and 16.1%, respectively. The impact of varied deposition parameters upon the In2S3 film properties and performance of cadmium (Cd)-free solar cells has been outlined. A comparative/operational analysis (solar cell efficiencies above 9% reported for cell area <1 cm²) of various buffer layers used in two primary types of TFSC technology: chalcopyrite (CIS/CIGS)- and CdTe-based solar cells was also performed to measure the progress of In2S3 compared to its counterparts.

  • M. A. Mughal, M. J. Newell, et al., “Morphological and Compositional Analysis of Electrodeposited Indium (III) Sulfide (In2S3) films”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, 162(7), 2015, D265-D269.

This paper focuses on understanding the growth mechanisms of semiconductor thin films for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Electrodeposition continues to be a complex deposition technique that can lead to regions of low quality (for example, cracks) in films. Such cracks can form porous zones on the substrate and diminish the heterojunction interface quality of a PV cell. In this paper, electrodeposition of In2S3 films was systematically and quantitatively investigated by varying electrodeposition parameters including bath composition, current density, deposition time, and deposition temperature. Their effects upon the morphology, composition, and film growth mechanism were studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and digital imaging analysis (using fracture and buckling analysis software). In addition, the effect of different annealing treatments (200°C, 300°◦C, and 400°C in air) and coated glass-substrates (Mo, ITO, and FTO) upon the properties of the In2S3 films was analyzed. Furthermore, the Taguchi/Design of Experiments (DOE) Method was used to determine the optimal electrodeposition parameters in order to improve the properties.

  • M. A. Mughal, R. Engelken, et al., “Optimization of the Electrodeposition Parameters to Improve the Stoichiometry of In2S3 Films for Solar Applications Using the Taguchi Method”, Journal of Nanomaterials, 2014, 1-10.

Properties of electrodeposited semiconductor thin films are dependent upon the electrolyte composition, plating time, and temperature as well as the current density and the nature of the substrate. In this study, the influence of the electrodeposition parameters such as deposition voltage, deposition time, composition of solution, and deposition temperature upon the properties of In2S3 films was analyzed by the Taguchi Method. According to Taguchi analysis, the interaction between deposition voltage and deposition time was significant. Deposition voltage had the largest impact upon the stoichiometry of In2S3 films and deposition temperature had the least impact. The stoichiometric ratios between sulfur and indium (S/In: 3/2) obtained from experiments performed with optimized electrodeposition parameters were in agreement with predicted values from the Taguchi Method. The experiments were carried out according to Taguchi orthogonal array L27(34) design of experiments (DOE). Approximately 600nm thick In2S3 films were electrodeposited from an organic bath (ethylene glycol-based) containing indium chloride (InCl3), sodium chloride (NaCl), and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3.5H2O), the latter used as an additional sulfur source along with elemental sulfur (S). An X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) unit, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were, respectively, used to analyze the phases, elemental composition, and morphology of the electrodeposited In2S3 films.

Peer Reviewed Conference Publications

  • M. J. Newell, M. A. Mughal, et al., "Elemental Sulfur-Based Electrodeposition of Indium Sulfide Films", in: Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Seattle, WA., 2011, 1322-1326.
  • M. A. Mughal, Michael J. Newell, et al., "Statistical Analysis of Electroplated Indium (III) Sulfide (In2S3) Films, a Potential Buffer Material for PV (Heterojunction Solar Cell) Systems, using Organic Electrolytes", Nanotechnology 2013: Bio Sensors, Instruments, Medical, Environment, and Energy,3. Technical Proceedings of the 2013 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference, Washington, D.C.,  523-527.
  • M. A. Mughal, M. J. Newell, et al., “Morphological and Compositional Analysis of Electrodeposited Indium (III) Sulfide (In2S3) Films”, in: Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, CO, 2014, 1638-1642.
  • M. J. Newell, M. A. Mughal, et al., “Stoichiometric Control via Periods of Open-circuit During Electrodeposition”, in: Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, CO, 2014, 1661-1665.
  • R. Sharma, M. A. Mughal, et al., “Photo Electrochemical Characterization of Titania Photoanodes Fabricated using Varying Anodization Parameters”, in: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Industry Application Society Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, 2015, 4799-4806.

Professional Affiliations:

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer (IEEE)
International Association of Engineers (IAE)
Massachusetts Teaching Association (MTA)
National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE)
Society of Asian Scientists & Engineers
The Optical Society (OSA)